Problems with your toilet can be incredibly frustrating. To help reduce the amount of time that you will spend worrying about your toilet troubles, here are some common problems and solutions:
A clog is one of the most obvious problems that you will encounter, since it will immediately be apparent upon usage of the toilet. While a clog can be incredibly frustrating, there are also quite a few easy solutions that you can implement in a matter of minutes.
First, you want to try plunging the clog. With a plunger, make sure that there is enough water to submerge the lip of the plunger and pump for 20-30 seconds. This will make it easier for the plunger to create a seal, which will separate the air under the plunger from the rest of the air in your home. When you then depress the plunger, you are actually forcing that small pocket of air downwards, where it should ideally break up the clog with brute force.
If that doesn't work, then a solution of vinegar and baking soda should do the trick. All you need to do is add some baking soda and hot water to the clog, wait a few minutes, and then add some vinegar. As far as proportions and amounts are concerned, about half a cup of each will do. After 20 or so minutes, the clog should have been broken up.
If you find that there is water on the floor or leaking out of the toilet, then there are unfortunately quite a few places that you will need to look. Toilets are pretty complicated, and there are several different seals that could be responsible.
Start by opening up the tank and looking around for anything that is obviously worn or broken. Replacing these seals can be cheap and easy, when compared with other possibilities.
The damaged seal might be between the bowl and the tank, which can be impossible to access without turning off the water and draining the tank. If you feel up to that, then you will need to detach the tank and remove pieces until you find the damaged seal in question.
If that bears no fruit, then you will need to additionally remove the bolts that attach your toilet to the ground. You will then be able to move your toilet and check for any damage to the seal that is between your toilet and the ground.
If you are still stumped and cannot figure out where the broken seal is, then it might be time to call a pro for your plumbing repair needs.